Diabetes is a condition of low blood sugar levels. This is because insulin does not work properly in the body. As a result, it is difficult for the body to control blood sugar levels.
There are two main types of sugar. Type 1 diabetes can be treated with insulin injections, but careful diet and activity planning is necessary to avoid medical complications.
Type 2 diabetes can be managed with lifestyle measures, oral and injectable medications, and insulin when other treatments have failed.
With so many diabetes medications available, it can be difficult to find the best one for everyone. This article discusses the different types of drugs available and their effects on the body.
Drugs for type 1 diabetes
Treatment for type 1 diabetes almost always includes insulin. It compensates for the lack of insulin in the body and stabilizes blood sugar levels.
You can inject insulin yourself, or if you are in the hospital, a doctor can inject insulin directly into your bloodstream. Inulin is also available as a powder that humans can inhale. Some people prefer to use an insulin pump, which is a small device that delivers insulin through a tube that is inserted into the skin.
Insulin injections vary in their rate of action, peak effect, and duration of action. The goal is to mimic how the body produces insulin throughout the day to promote efficient use of energy.
There are many types of insulin.
The injection works quickly
These injections start working in 5-15 minutes, but usually last 2-4 hours. Fast-acting injectors include:
- lispro insulin (Humarac) .
- aspart insulin (Novolac) .
- insulin glulisine (Apitra) .
- a short needle
It starts working in 30-60 minutes and lasts 3-6 hours. Includes regular insulin (Humulin R and Novolin R).
The needle releases the middle
The drug starts working in 2-4 hours, lasts 12-18 hours and contains insulin isophanes (Humulin N and Novolin N), also known as NPH insulin.
The needle acts long
The injection starts working after 2 hours and lasts about 24 hours.
- insulin glargine (Togyo) .
- insulin replacement (Levemir) .
- insulin replacement (Tresiba) .
Injection before mixing
This type of medication contains a combination of the aforementioned types of insulin. All activities are done in 15-60 minutes and 10-16 hours.
Insulin aspart protamine and insulin aspart (Novolac Mix 50/50 and Novolac Mix 70/30) .
Insulin is absorbed
When inhaled, rapid-acting insulin starts working in 12-15 minutes and lasts 2.5-3 hours. Human insulin-releasing powder (Afrezza).
Another drug used to treat type 1 diabetes
Some non-insulin injections are also widely used to treat type 1 diabetes.
Amylin analogs such as pramlintide (Xymlin) mimic amylin neurons involved in glucose regulation.
Glucagon products can restore blood sugar levels that are severely reduced by insulin therapy.
Medicines for type 2 diabetes
Insulin also helps control blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes, but doctors usually prescribe it only when other treatments are ineffective.
Pregnant women with type 2 diabetes can take insulin to reduce its effects on the fetus.
In addition to recommending lifestyle changes for people with high blood sugar, doctors can prescribe non-insulin medications to lower blood sugar. These medications are listed below.
It is a combination of many drug effects. Insulin therapy may be needed if more than one treatment is needed to control blood sugar levels.
Biguanides increase the effect of insulin and are the most effective treatment for type 2 diabetes.
Metformin is the only biguanide licensed in the United States in the forms of Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glumiza, Romet and Fortamate.
This drug increases the production of insulin from the pancreas into the blood and reduces the production of glucose from the liver. These newer drugs have less side effects than the older ones, so I usually take them.
- Amaryl (Glimepiride)
- Glipizide (glucotrol)
- Glyburide (Diabetes, Micronase, Glinase)
Older and younger sulfonylureas include:
- Chloropamide (Diabin)
- Tolazamide (Torinase)
- Tolbutamide (Olinase)
Doctors today prescribe sulfonylureas less frequently than in the past. This is because the drug can cause blood sugar levels to drop too low, which can lead to other health problems.
Meglutinoids increase insulin production. It can also increase the activity of the body and the release of insulin during meals.
Thiazolidinediones reduce the body’s resistance to the effects of insulin. These drugs have serious side effects, so doctors should be on the lookout for potential safety issues when taking them. People with heart problems should not use this medicine.
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors reduce the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates. It lowers blood sugar.
Dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor (DPP-4).
DPP-4 inhibitors delay gastric emptying and delay glucose absorption.
DPP-4 inhibitors also inhibit the DPP-4 enzyme, a process that causes the pancreas to produce more insulin and the liver to produce less glucose.
Below are some examples of DPP-4 inhibitors.
- Algoliptin (Nicina)
- Tragenta (Linagliptin)
- Sitagliptin (Janovia)
- Saxagliptin (English)
- Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor.
SGLT2 inhibitors cause the body to excrete more glucose from the blood into the urine, which can lead to weight gain, which is beneficial for type 2 diabetes.
People with type 1 diabetes cannot take insulin orally because the hormone is broken down in the stomach. This means that injecting insulin into the pump is the first way insulin gets into the bloodstream.
Diabetes researchers have explored other methods, but more research is needed before this new method can be used widely. Nasal and skin grafts are a possible way to get insulin in the future.
An artificial pancreas from a trusted source is also an option. These devices use sensors to electronically monitor blood sugar levels and deliver the required amount of insulin.
Surgeons can also transplant insulin-producing pancreatic cells from a donor. Some people have already benefited from early advances in islet cell transplantation research.
Personalized medicine has good potential for treating any type of diabetes. The development of large genetic data may lead to better disease classification and targeted therapy.
Take a look
For people with type 1 diabetes, insulin must be injected into the body, intravenously, or inhaled.
People with type 2 diabetes often need drugs like metformin to increase insulin production and lower blood sugar levels.
In addition to treating the specific effects of diabetes, your doctor may prescribe medications to treat other conditions related to diabetes. Weight loss drugs and ACE inhibitors to reduce high blood pressure.