Leukemia is a cancer that begins in immature blood cells in the bone marrow. Generally, doctors use blood tests and other medical equipment to diagnose leukemia.
Leukemia accounts for approximately 3.2 percent of all cancer diagnoses in the United States. There are several types of leukemia, which can be acute or chronic.
Most leukemias begin in cells that become white blood cells, but some types of leukemia can also develop in other types of blood.
Symptoms of leukemia
Symptoms caused by leukemia can also be caused by other unrelated conditions. Therefore, patients with leukemia may sometimes not recognize these symptoms immediately.
Leukemia can be caused by reliable sources:
- Night sweat
- bone and joint pain
- Frequent infection occurs
Other symptoms include:
- nausea or vomiting
- Unnecessary weight loss
- Itchy skin
- training soreness
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Upset stomach
- Numb hands and feet
- Sleeping problems
- Screening for leukemia
To diagnose leukemia, doctors first perform a physical examination. They will show signs of infection, swelling and bruising, which may indicate infection.
Blood tests are the main way to diagnose leukemia. In addition to blood tests, doctors may use other tests to confirm the diagnosis or study the progression of the disease.
Diagnostic tests may include:
Doctors can use many types of blood to diagnose leukemia, e.g.
Blood differential: Measures different types of white blood cells in the blood.
Peripheral blood smear: This involves placing a drop of blood on a surface to be examined under a microscope, looking for changes in leukemia cells.
It involves exposing blood cells to antibodies that bind differently depending on whether there is cancer.
The test also measures DNA levels in cells, which can indicate potential levels of cancer growth.
A biopsy can provide additional information about the type of cancer, how it has grown and how far it has spread.
For leukemia, doctors usually use a bone marrow biopsy or lymph node biopsy.
During a bone marrow biopsy, doctors insert a long needle into the bone marrow, usually through the thigh, and remove a solid or liquid portion of marrow for analysis. The procedure is short but potentially uncomfortable.
Lymph node biopsy means that some or all of the lymph nodes are removed while the patient is under anesthesia. This may be necessary if the lymph nodes are swollen after diagnosis, indicating that the cancer has become more aggressive.
Imaging tests provide detailed images of internal organs, helping doctors determine disease progression or risk of complications.
These tests may include:
X-rays: They send rays through the body to create simple images.
Computed tomography: Provides more detailed images of the body.
PET scan: This scan uses radioactive material to isolate the location of cancer around the body.
MRI scan: This type of scan uses strong magnetic fields and radio waves to create a detailed picture of the inside of the body.
Ultrasound scan: It uses high-frequency sound waves to see if an organ or lymph node is enlarged.
Lung function tests
Doctors use various lung function tests to assess lung strength before and after treatment. This helps doctors determine which medications are appropriate and if there is a risk of complications.
Pulmonary function tests
Your doctor will use a variety of lung function tests to assess your lung strength before and after treatment. These doctors help you decide which treatment is right for you and if there are any complications.
Pulmonary function tests include:
Spirometry: In this test, you blow into a computerized tube.
Pulmonary hemodynamics: In this test, a machine measures the force of air that is inhaled and exhaled.
Lung Diffusion Test: During the test, a person inhales a certain gas, holds it for a few seconds, and then exhales it through a tube.
A wooden spine
while collecting cerebrospinal fluid by inserting a spinal needle into the lumbar region. The fluid can tell doctors how far the leukemia has spread.
There are many ways to treat leukemia. Doctors use information about the type and severity of leukemia to determine the best treatment.
Treatment for leukemia includes:
- Wait patiently
- Chemical treatment
- Stem cell transplant
- Targeted therapy
- the work
According to reliable sources, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has a 5-year survival rate of 65% for all types of leukemia, which means that 65% of leukemia patients are still alive after 5 years.
The NCI also noted that death rates from leukemia have decreased by about 2 percent annually since 2010.
When to call the doctor
People with leukemia should see a doctor.
People with leukemia should contact their doctor if they notice signs of relapse, such as infection, easy bruising or bleeding.
Leukemia is a cancer of the blood or bones. It usually starts with immature blood cells detected by a blood test. Doctors can diagnose leukemia using other tools, such as imaging tests and biopsies.
Doctors use tests to diagnose leukemia and determine its severity. People with leukemia may need blood tests and should see a healthcare professional right away.