When you’re trying to conceive, it can help to know when ovulation occurs and your best period. Some people may need birth control to avoid pregnancy.
Females are usually fertile a day or two after ovulation, when the ovaries release eggs. However, it is possible that the conception occurred a few days before ovulation, since spermatozoa can remain in the female body for several days.
The days in your menstrual cycle when you can get pregnant are called “safe periods.”
This article explains how to calculate the period of fertility to support or avoid pregnancy.
The Menstrual Cycle
A person’s menstrual cycle lasts from 28 to 32 days, some are shorter and others are longer.
The first day is considered as the first day of menstruation. After that, menstruation lasts from 3 to 7 days.
Menstrual cycles occur during the follicular phase before ovulation.
The luteal phase starts from ovulation to the next period, which lasts 14 days.
Ovulation and pregnancy
When the egg is released, it travels to the fallopian tube, where it enters the uterus, which can take up to 24 hours.
Pregnancy occurs when sperm enters the fallopian tube to fertilize an egg. If the sperm does not produce an egg, the egg enters the uterus and is damaged and ready to leave the body during the next period.
The number of ovulation
According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, ovulation occurs about 14 days before the next expected period, and the menstrual cycle lasts 28 days.
Most people give birth between the 11th and 21st day of the cycle. Ovulation does not occur on the same day every month and the expected date may vary by a day or more.
Doctors refer to the part of the cycle during ovulation as the fertile window because the chances of conception are high during this time. For example, ovulation can occur on the 14th day. A woman can get pregnant on the same day or within the next 24 hours.
However, the fertile window begins a few days before ovulation, when sperm can stay in the woman’s body for up to five days. Therefore, even if a woman does not have sex for 14 or 15 days, if she has sex without contraception for 9-13 days, she can become pregnant. day
According to the 2018 study, the number of pregnancies decreases from 8 days onwards, peaks at 13 days and drops to zero at 30 days.
However, it is important to note that these notes should only be used as a guide. Every process is different.
It would be good for a person to have a menstrual cycle chart and fertility chart to know the exact day of conception every month.
Symptoms of ovulation
Tracking ovulation symptoms can help you track your baby’s due date each month.
- Abdomen is soft
- The discharge is clean, pure and shiny like white cloth.
- A small increase in basal body temperature
- Strong sexual desire
Some indicators, such as basal body temperature, continue to change after ovulation. For this reason, temperature should not be used to determine fertility.
It is best for a person to monitor their symptoms for several months to get an idea of what is going on in their body.
But keep in mind that there are many variables, and the time of ovulation can be different from month to month.
Another option is to use an ovulation indicator or fertility meter.
Fertility kits measure the amount of hormones in your urine to determine when you are fertile each month. Some applications also include peak delivery times.
Integrating these functions can help a person speak the truth.
The chart below, based on 2015 research, shows a typical menstrual cycle and a person’s fertility at each stage:
Optimum fertility and chances of pregnancy
To maximize the chances of conception, a man should have sex within 2-3 days of ovulation. If you have sex on one of these days, you have a 20-30% chance of getting pregnant.
Here are more tips to increase your chances of getting pregnant:
Have sex regularly. Pregnancy rates are highest among partners who have sex every few days of the month.
Avoid smoking. Smoking reduces fertility and affects the health of the fetus.
Limit your alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption can reduce fertility in men and women and harm an unborn child.
Maintain a moderate weight. People who are overweight or obese are more likely to develop ovarian cysts.
Reduce stress: While research is uncertain whether anxiety or stress can reduce fertility, it is clear that reducing stress can provide some benefits for someone trying to conceive.
Treatment of comorbidities: Eliminate or treat any medical causes that may be contributing to infertility. For women, these include hormonal issues, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), fibroids, autoimmune disorders, and more.
A doctor can assess the couple’s general health and determine how to increase the chances of pregnancy.
What can affect male fertility?
Even if a person has regular sex and tracks their ovulation, there may be reasons why the sperm does not reach the egg.
The following causes of male infertility:
Sperm morphology: Differences in sperm size and shape can affect fertility.
Low sperm count: The sperm from the male partner does not contain enough sperm. Fertility doctors consider a person with less than 15 million sperm cells per milliliters for having a low sperm count – the lower the sperm count, the less likely you are to get pregnant.
Reduced sperm motility: This means that the sperm cannot move efficiently to reach the egg.
A number of conditions can cause some of these male fertility problems, including hormone imbalances, testicular infection or injury, surgery in the area, and conditions such as cancer.
Some people want to monitor their fertility to avoid pregnancy.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) lists fertility-sensitive birth control methods with a 24% failure rate when used regularly.
Chances of pregnancy are lowest while a woman is menstruating and on both sides of the cycle.
Because sperm can live in the body for several days, you can still get pregnant if you ovulate early or late in your cycle.
People who want to use a fertility awareness method should talk to their doctor first.
Fertility and aging
Ovulation and fertile time can vary from cycle to cycle, but can also change with age. After the age of 30, women’s fertility naturally begins to decline. At age 40, the chance of getting pregnant drops to 10% per cycle.
With age, the number and quality of eggs decreases. Spores may also be irregular.
Certain diseases, such as endometriosis or PCOS, make pregnancy difficult.
What is the difference between birth control pills and fertility?
Birth control pills are designed to prevent unwanted pregnancies. The pill prevents pregnancy by releasing synthetic hormones that inhibit ovulation and thicken the uterine lining.
Therefore, even if an egg is released from the ovary, a fertilized egg cannot implant in the uterine wall.
According to the CDC’s reliable sources, birth control pills are over 99% effective with perfect use, but only 91% with regular use. This means that 9 out of 100 women will become pregnant within a year if they take the pill regularly.